Stephen. R. Holland
|"Quantum mechanics implies that the
whole of space is filled with pairs of 'virtual'
particles and antiparticles that are constantly
materializing in pairs, separating, and then
coming together again and annihilating each
other. These particles are called virtual
because, unlike 'real' particles, they cannot
be observed directly with a particle detector.
Their indirect effects can nonetheless be
measured, and their existence has been confirmed
by a small shift (The 'Lamb Shift') they
produce in the spectrum of light from excited
--- Stephen Hawking 1977
|Bonding of virtual pairs may explain "real"
particle components and decay
Download PDF (2002)
I worked out a simple bookkeeping system showing that all decay modes of all particles differ in only virtual pairs (mass) and neutrino pairs (bonding angular momentum). It describes the possible list of components and decay modes for all the "elementary" particles.
Muons (above in circle) are the simplest bonding combination so are the most important particle to study first. Picture shows the muon components and how they can decay.
|Physicists know electrons interact with a
"sea of virtual pairs" to
the Lamb Shift (above).
I say if they can interact, they can also bond. An electron bonded to a Virtual pair becomes a muon, a "heavy electron". Therefore, Higgs bosons may be just another name for virtual pairs bonding.
Each Virtual Pair is a positron/electron pair combined with two half-units of spin, so it does not easily interact with charge or spin.
All the observed decay modes are based on internal pairs (spin units or electron/positrons) annihilating, or separating without annihilating. No other decay modes are possible except incomplete stages in this process.
The neutral pion turns out to be the essential brick or building block of all larger particles.
A u quark means a certain combination of neutral pion units. Joining of neutral pions creates the "Strong force"
A W particle is not a particle, just a reactive electron attached, like a valence electron, to give it charge (an ionized atom does not make it a new atom with a new name).Bonding using this active electron or positron explains the "Weak force" roughly like simple valence bonding of molecules
A d quark is just another way to say a particle has the neutral pion/W combination and has net charge, simlar to the word "ion" with atoms.
Only 2 elementary particles
There are only two elementary particles, electrons and positrons, combined with spin units. Charge and spin are universal and are the only units not changed by Relativity observations. Every other particle can be made with only these, as proven because they are the final results of all decay going to completion.
Gamma rays carry off excess energy and spin when electrons and positrons annihilate, but gamma rays are not structural units
When orbital electrons in an atom change orbital angular momentum, a photon carries the angular momentum and energy. When virtual pair bonds separate in particle decay, the same angular momentum comes off as "neutrinos" instead. (This structural model may lead to knowing how physically neutrinos and photons differ.)
My decay analysis sometimes shows two separate combinations of units can be treated as the same particle, such as certain K mesons. I believe strangeness refers simply to internal options of structural components, perhaps like left or right-handed molecules. So a Strange quark refers to structural options.
The special Muon
Muons represemt the simplest structure, an electron combined with a Virtual Pari, so should be studied to understand Virtual Pair Bonding.
The special Pion.
Pions are the basic next level to create all higher particles. A charged pion adds the W electron. In bookkeeping of larger particles, they always indicated they were made of pion units. Neutral pions are exactly 4 Virtual Pairs in some "excited" but very temporary bonding form, so have very short life spans externally.
The special Proton
My bookkeeping had a bit of trouble with protons. A neutron is a proton and W. My bookkeeping came just short of a perfect 6 neutral pions to match a proton decay products, so I suggest a proton is something like a stable benzene ring.
This model is only a bookkeeping analysis, like an early Periodic Table of elements. It so far says nothing about predicting actual masses. I suggest that will come out later, just like understanding of molecular bonding waited for quantum mechanics.
Particles / Antiparticles
This model shows all particles have a balance of electron/positron pairs and neutrino unit pairs, except for W electrons. There is no need for an anti-universe.
This internal balancing of electrons and positrons suggests an ultimate energy source if decay can be triggered. The decay products would be electrons, positrons, gamma rays and neutrinos if it went to completion, but that is unlikely. Considering the inefficiency of fission meant that the Hiroshima bomb only amounted to one gram of particles, the results would be significant. Any suggestions on how to trigger decay?
Note, these are all just suggestions. I hope I can inspire a few professional physicists to take it seriously.